For a diabetes patient, monitoring blood sugar level is of high significance. It is the best tool to have a great control over the prevalent disease. The amount of glucose or sugar present in the blood is variable throughout the day and night, depending on when, what and how much food is taken and whether or not the body burns calories. Being aware on what blood sugar normal level is, how it can affect diabetes and what relative blood sugar test can be conducted to determine it can help anyone in getting back in shape and maintain a healthy lifestyle.
Fasting blood sugar (FBS) measures the blood sugar after the patient has not eaten for 8 hours. It is the initial test conducted to determine diabetes and prediabetes.
2-hour postprandial blood sugar measures the blood sugar 2 hours right after the patient ate.
Random blood sugar or also called casual blood glucose test measures the blood sugar despite of when the patient last ate. Several random tests may be conducted throughout the day. Since blood glucose level for healthy people doesn’t vary throughout the day, having varying results could mean a problem.
Oral glucose tolerance test is performed through a series of blood glucose measurements taken after drinking a liquid containing glucose. It is used determine diabetes, prediabetes and especially for gestational diabetes on pregnant women.
Glycohemoglobin A1c or also called estimated average glucose measures how much glucose is present to the red blood cells. This is an effective method to keep track of blood sugar level for two to three months.
Glucose pertains to the major source of energy that is necessary for human cells and organs. The energy produced is from the food eaten, broken down into the stomach and absorbed by the body through the bloodstream. Thus, it increases the body’s blood glucose level.
The blood glucose normal level is usually 70 to 100 milligrams per deciliter, in the morning upon waking up, or prior to any food intake. This method is called fasting blood glucose or sugar level.
In case of random blood glucose test, the result will vary depending on what the patient last ate. The normal result two hours after eating is less than 140 milligrams per deciliter.
A patient who gets a level of 100-125 milligrams per deciliter after a fasting glucose test has prediabetes. For A1c, results between 5.7-6.4% and any value between 140 milligram per deciliter and 199 milligram per deciliter during a two-hour oral glucose tolerance test means the patient is diagnosed of prediabetes. Prediabetes or also called impaired fasting glucose means that the patient is more likely to develop diabetes.
Keep track of your blood sugar level record to check if it is too high or too low for several days. If it is, it might mean you need to have some changes in your diabetes plan. To have a thorough understanding of your blood glucose level result, contact your doctor at once.
When we think of medications, we often think of pills or those in tablet form. There are actually several types of medicines. There are those that can be bought over-the-counter, can be acquired only if there is prescription of a doctor, and can be exclusively bought from hospitals. So here’s a quick rundown of the different types of medications, which you may find helpful in figuring out which type you might need in case you are sick and feeling blue.
Drops are used directly to the affected body part such as eye, ear or nose.
If you’ve had sore throat before, probably you are familiar with lozenges, which pertain to that type of medicine that comes in medicated tablet form that should be dissolved in the mouth.
Whenever we have colds or asthma, inhalants come in handy, which is that type of medicine that is taken into the body through the nose. The active part of the medicine is released under pressure directly into the lungs.
Among the most popular types of medicines are injections or vaccines. Injections or vaccines usually contain a small amount of an agent that resembles a specific germ or germs that have been modified or killed. When someone is injected or vaccinated, it sets up the body’s immune system to “remember” the germ so it will be able to fight off infection by that germ in the future. Injections could either be intramuscular (IM), which means that it is directed to the muscles, or injected directly into the bloodstream (IV).
Certain medicines are designed as patches which are absorbed by the body through the skin.
There are also creams, lotions or ointments that are applied directly onto the skin, into the eyes or ears. These come in tubular form or in bottles.
Suppositories are those inserted ano-rectally, where the medication is quickly absorbed. Though can be an unpleasant form of medicine to oversee these are found to be very helpful in cases where the patient is vomiting or probably to vomit.
Taking medicines may feel like a hassle sometimes, but medicines are the most effective treatments available for many illnesses. If you ever have any questions about what a certain type of medicine does or how you should take it, it is best that you consult your doctor.
In a statement released by the U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention, about one-third of adults in the United States (U.S.) have high blood pressure. This was based on a long-term study which started in 1980 and culminated in 2005, conducted among 4,861 individuals, between the ages 18-30, from four (4) key U.S. cities. For the duration of the study, the subject individuals had their blood pressure periodically. During the final year of the study, the subject individuals underwent CT scans to look for calcium build up, which is considered as an early sign of heart disease. Out of those who took part in the study, only four (4) percent were able to keep their blood pressure at normal levels. That study was taken years back and that figure could possibly be higher at this point with the kind of lifestyle young adults now have.
Lifestyle changes can however help in lowering blood pressure such as exercising regularly, eating a healthy diet, limiting the amount of alcohol intake, cutting back on caffeine, avoiding smoking, among other things. But more often than not, whenever stress strikes we often resort to going back our “old ways.” While leading a “healthy lifestyle,” is always the only solution there is, high blood pressure medication over the counter can be availed in any pharmacy.
Among the more “reviewed” high blood pressure over the counter medication is Linisopril, which works by blocking a substance in the body that cause the blood vessels to tighten. As a result, Linisopril relaxes the blood vessels which eventually lowers blood pressure and increases the supply of blood and oxygen in the heart. Also, Linisopril is used to help patients in their recovery after a heart attack. Another high blood pressure over the counter medication is Atenolol which works by affecting the response to nerve impulses in certain parts of the body, such as the heart. When taken, the heart beats slower and decreases blood pressure. This can however be availed of with your doctor’s prescription. Similar to Atenolol is Diovan. Both belong to a class of drugs called “angiostensin receptor blockers” as these work by relaxing the blood vessels so that blood can flow more easily. Among other high blood pressure over the counter medications include Bystolic, Hydrochlorothiazide, Metoprolol Succinate, Norvasc, Toprol XL, Amlodipine, Benicar, Metoprolol Tartrate, Lisinopril-hydrochlothiazie, Diovan HCT, Cozaar, Clonidine, Losartan, Propanolol, Spironoclactone, Azor, Coreg, Carvedilol, Benicar HCT, Exforge, Avapro, Lotrel, Verapamil, Furosemide, Lasix, Hyzaar, Tekturna, Micardis, Enalapril Maleate, Altace, Avalide, Micardis HCT, Ramipril, Diltiazem, Losartan-hydrochlorothiazide, among others.
Please take note however, that before starting any medication it is best that your doctor is consulted first as to its risks and benefits it will bring to your health.
Physicians are renowned for their messy handwriting. There are times that even if you can read it, you find it mind-cracking to comprehend what’s written. Doctor’s prescriptions use Latin abbreviations and medical terminology for instructions on which medicine and how it should be administered that are rather unusual for ordinary people.
Understanding your doctor’s prescriptions is critical in knowing what medication do you need to intake and prevent the occurrence of any medical error. Having a prior knowledge of what medicine you need reduces the risk of improper refill of pharmacist that may occur once the prescription is not properly understood.
Nowadays, some physicians are using electronic prescribing that may be e-mailed or fax to your pharmacy. You may request to have a copy before leaving the clinic to read and to check what was written. Never hesitate to ask for clarification to your doctor, healthcare assistant, office staff or pharmacist. Doing so can prevent any error or mishap from taking place.
The doctor’s prescriptions consist of health info, such as your name, address, birthday, age, date, a blank area for the signature of the physician, and a blank area to fill the following instructions:
To help you understand your doctor’s prescriptions, here are the commonly used medical abbreviations or symbols on prescriptions:
ad lib – freely, as needed
bid – twice a day
prn – as needed
q – every
q3h – every 3 hours
q4h – every 4 hours
qd – every day
qid – four times a day
qod – every other day
tid – three times a day
ac – before meals
hs – at bedtime
int – between meals
pc – after meals
caps – capsule
gtt – drops
i, ii, iii, or iiii – the number of doses (1, 2, 3, or 4)
mg – milligrams
ml – milliliters
ss – one half
tabs – tablets
tbsp – tablespoon (15ml)
tsp – teaspoon (5ml)
ad – right ear
al – left ear
c or o – with
od – right eye
os – left eye
ou – both eyes
po – by mouth
s or ø – without
sl – sublingual
top – apply topically
Your physician may write whether generic or branded medication is prescribed for your medical condition. Unless the doctor’s prescription indicated “DAW” or dispense as written, the pharmacist can dispense a generic medication even if your doctor wrote a branded name drug. Be informed that it is illegal for the pharmacist to dispense a generic version of drug if your doctor indicated DAW on your prescription. For any queries and concerns, feel free to approach your doctor for clarification.
With the advent of science and awareness against diseases and illnesses, people are becoming more health conscious. No matter what reason you have to desire a healthier body, whether to lower your risk for diseases, to achieve a slimmer figure, or to live a longer and happier life, we compiled some tips to get healthy that aren’t as daunting as how others perceive them to be and oftentimes overlooked no matter how significant they truly are in having a healthy body.
1. Healthy diet
You are what you feed into your body. This has been said so many times that you are already sick and tired of hearing it since you were a kid. However, never take this very significant tip for granted. Eat healthy food rich in vitamins and minerals such as fruits and vegetables. Get at least 5-9 servings a day. As much as possible, take herbal and vitamin supplements to support good health.
2. Adequate sleep
An interrupted and enough sleep plays a vital role in healing and refuelling your energy. Notice how grumpy and inefficient you are when you lack sleep. A short nap or sitting can help booze your energy. No need to drink cups of coffee to keep you wide awake if you had enough sleep a night before.
It is easier said than done. Many people struggle in doing or even starting to exercise. Just by jogging or running for 10 minutes three to five times a week at an easy speed can help you stay in shape. You can also do some push ups. Start by doing 10 times and increase it every day. Sweat some fats off and feel better after.
4. Do what you love.
What is your passion? Just by merely doing it can make you feel happier. A happier disposition leads to a healthier you.
5. Mental exercise
A healthy body includes a sharp, alert and sound mind. Feed your mind by reading, learning, planning, contemplating, analyzing, solving, and exploring new information and ideas. Stuff your brain with significant things that you can use in the long run.
Spending a few minutes meditating helps your body relax and reduce stress. It is basically a mind-body complementary medicine. Focus on something that relaxes you and eliminate the thoughts that cause stress. As a result, it enhances physical and emotional well-being.
7. Think positive.
Positive thoughts give a chance for a person to see more possible opportunities, while negative thoughts narrow mind and focus attention. Basically, positive thoughts are known to enhance well-being by broadening a man’s sense of possibilities and open mind to build new skills and resources that can be beneficial in other areas of his life. So, be sure to stuff in more positive thoughts and cast those worries away.
8. Deal with emotions.
Face what troubles you. Do not suppress it inside. It can be doing harm inside your body without you knowing it. Let go of the past and start anew.
Applying these tips to get healthy makes you nearer to your goal. Share these to your family and friends and surround yourself with people who would be willing to support your endeavour. Now, that’s a great and fun way to be healthy.
Being pregnant puts the mother on a higher risk on whatever she does from her food, fluid and medication in takes to simple and complex activities. Since not only her body can be affected, but also that of the developing baby in her womb, safety measures should always be observed especially in taking prescription medications during pregnancy. To avoid complications, only take prescribed drugs intended for pregnant women. Consult your doctor for medications that are suitable for you upon confirming your condition. Discuss the risks that have to be weighed should there be drugs that you have to intake, or alternatives that you can intake that have lesser risk.
In general, the safest drugs for pregnant women are prenatal vitamins and thyroid medications. Prenatal vitamins should contain a minimum of 400-800 micrograms (µg) of folic acid. Folic acid facilitates minimizing the chance for the baby to have a neural tube defect, like spina bifida—a condition wherein the spine of brain was formed improperly. Be wary though because too much vitamin intakes can lead to severe birth defects. Only take the prescribed dosage by your doctor.
Thyroid medication is recommended for a pregnant woman who either has hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) or hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid). Levothyroxine is used in the treatment. It is a synthetic form of thyroid hormone that is perfectly safe for the baby’s development. Through this treatment, pregnant women can have lower risk of experiencing miscarriage, preeclampsia and preterm delivery. Also, this prevents women to bear babies that have lower IQs due to insufficient thyroid hormone.
Benadryl cream, Caladryl lotion or cream, Hydrocortisone cream or ointment and oatmeal bath for treating rashes
Never risk taking unprescribed medications or over the counter drugs that aren’t advised for pregnant women. Even herbal medicines aren’t proven to be safe for pregnant women. There are no sufficient studies that show whether herbal medicines are beneficial for pregnant. Check if these herbal medicines are FDA approved and are recommended for pregnant. Always ensure that the pharmacist or health care provider knows your condition upon consultation. Better be more cautious now that a baby depends for safety and survival in you.
For common symptoms and minor illnesses, we have enumerated examples of over the counter drugs that are easily and readily accessible from stores even without the prescription of the doctor. Better be aware of the correct drug and the right amount of dosage to treat commonly acquired or developed illnesses. Moreover, some examples of over the counter drugs may not be suitable for women who are expectant or lactating. Better consult first the doctor to verify which among the examples of over the counter drugs is safe for you. Also, some of the examples of over the counter drugs aren’t apt for children.
Below are examples of over the counter (OTC) drugs to keep you guided. If you aren’t sure which among the examples of over the counter drugs is best for you, ask the pharmacist for more information before making a purchase.
Aches, Pains and Headaches
Over the counter drugs can serve as pain relievers for headaches, sprains, arthritis pain and minor joint and muscle pain. A person can take Acetaminophen (such as Tylenol) or Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). However, never get more than 4 grams of Acetaminophen in one day. Examples of over the counter drug for NSAIDS are ibuprofen and naproxen.
If suffering from fever, take acetaminophen every 4 – 6 hours. It is good for turning down the brain’s thermostat. Another alternative is to take ibuprofen every 6-8 hours. However, children who are under the age of 6 months should not be given ibuprofen. For adults, aspirin can be taken in order to treat fever. Never give aspirin to children unless prescribed by the doctor.
Colds, Sore Throat and Cough
To help aid the symptoms of colds and coughs, take the following examples of over the counter drugs: Guafenesin, menthol throat lozenges such as Halls, Robitusin and Vicks or liquid cough suppressants with dextromethorphan such as Benylin, Delsym, Robitussin DM, Simply Cough and Vicks 44. To help get rid of a runny nose and relieve postnatal drip, you may take oral decongestants such as pseudoephedrine (Contact Non-Drowsy, Sudafed) and phenylephrine (Sudafed PE)—provided you don’t have high blood pressure or prostate problems. For sore throat problems, you may take painkillers such as acetaminophen (Tylenol), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) or naproxen (Aleve) or spray Dyclonine (Cepacol) or phenol (Chloraseptic) that both help numb the pain.
One of the many examples of over the counter drug that works well with allergies is antihistamine pills such as dipenhydramine (Benadryl), chlorpheniramine (Chlor-Trimetron), brompheniramine (Dimetapp), or clemastine (Tavist). However, the above mentioned drugs can cause drowsiness. For antihistamines that cause minimal or no sleepiness, take loratadine (Alavert, Claritin, Dimetapp ND), fexofenadine (Allegra), or cetirizine (Zyrtec).
Nausea and Vomiting
To relieve nausea and vomiting, take Kaopectate or Pepto-Bismol. To cure motion sickness, take dimenhydrinate (Dramamine) or meclizine (Bonine, Antivert, Postafen, and Sea Legs).
Skin Rashes and Itching
For mild rashes, apply Hydrocortisone cream (Cortaid or Cortizone 10).
For mild diarrhea, you can take over the counter drugs with bismuth such as Kaopectate and Pepto-Bismol.
Always ask the pharmacist for recommendations if hesitant to get which among the examples of over the counter (OTC) drugs suits you and your condition. Remember to follow instructions indicated in the packaging or box medicine. Never take over the counter medicines longer or in higher doses than what the label recommends.
A simple yet very effective way to keep your family’s health in top condition is through vaccination. This is simply called immunization and should be practiced and implemented in your family regularly and consistently.
Looking around, you will find health authorities that provide the kind of immunization you need. Flu shots and other types of vaccines are commonly offered by these health service providers which are often staffed by qualified pharmacists.
Going to these places for vaccination does not necessarily require appointments. You may also ask the health personnel attending you about the kind of vaccination you need to keep yourself protected all the time.
However, there are certain types of vaccines which may not be available on a particular location. Most of the time, state laws are the ones that decides about what types of vaccines should be made available in a particular state.
Here is a list of some of the most common types of vaccines or immunizations which you can get from your health provider in your state.
Before a specific drug is introduced on the market, the company that formulated it has to undergo different procedures that usually cost multimillion dollars. Such expensive procedures include the discovery of the medicine, testing procedures, and clinical trials. Needless to say, a single new medicine usually costs the manufacturer a great deal of time and money before it can be marketed. But have you ever heard of generic medicines or drugs already? You might have already heard or even tried some of them alright but do you know what exactly they are?
Generic drugs or medicines are usually manufactured the moment the patent has already reached its expiration. Generally, the FDA or Federal Drug Administration gives a limited time for a particular patent to stay active. Basically, the length of time given to a particular patent usually varies from one country to another. The moment the patent has already reached its expiration, the drug manufacturer is then given the authority to manufacture a generic type or version of the medicine.
The question is: Are generic brand medicines come with similar benefits like the patented ones? The answer is yes, as long as the generic drug contains the same active ingredients which are also found in the original drug. This is actually the most important requirement which has been imposed by the FDA. Drug manufacturers should see to it that the formulation of the generic medicines must be nearly similar or identical to the formulation of the expired brand name. So this gives you the idea that even when you have purchased generic medicines for a particular treatment, you still get the same medicinal value from them.
Another important benefit of generic medicines is the fact that they come with much lower cost. This simply means many people are capable of buying them because they are simply more affordable. There are actually two good reasons why generic drugs come with much lower costs:
– These drugs are being copied so the manufacturers or companies are being relieved from spending much on clinical trials, tests, and research.
– Another good reason is that these drugs can be generated by one or more companies at the same time.
The picture simply depicts a tight competition among manufacturers of generic drugs. And obviously, when competition is evident, the companies are triggered to set their prices at lower levels – prices that are more affordable and much lower than the price offers of others. Of course, a smart buyer would surely get the ones with the lowest price tags as long as he gets similar benefits.
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